Central banks have been around a long time. The Bank of England celebrated its tercentenary in 1994. The even older Swedish Riksbank marks its 350th anniversary this year. But the modern independent central bank is a relatively new development that started for the most part in the 1990s. The European Central Bank, the most autonomous of all, was born at the start of June 1998, exactly 20 years ago. Now there is disquiet among central bankers that their golden age of monetary independence may prove to be as transient as previous eras such as the late 19th century gold standard.
These concerns were aired in a conference held on 25thMay in Stockholm to mark the Swedish central bank’s 350-year history. Jerome Powell, since February the Chairman of America’s Federal Reserve (a stripling by comparison, barely more than a century old), said that this was “a challenging moment for central banking.” Noting that trust in government and public institutions was at historic lows, he added that “central banks cannot take our measure of independence for granted.”