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On October 1, Catalonia’s long struggle with Madrid came to a head. What happens now?

We can only be certain that this is an extremely complex issue—which could have disastrous political and economical consequences for Catalonia, the rest of Spain and the EU

By J. A. Garrido Ardila  

The fraught referendum was the culmination of a long, fractious process. Photo: Wikimedia commons

Catalonia’s struggle for independence has a long and fraught history. In 1922, Spanish philosopher José Ortega y Gasset argued that the sudden development of the Catalan separatist movement was a consequence of Spain’s traumatic loss of the last overseas colonies in 1898. So strongly did separatist feelings grow that in 1934, during Spain’s II Republic, the President of Catalonia declared independence. The central government responded swiftly, and the Catalonian premier was tried and sentenced to…

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