Why have the political trajectories of India and Pakistan been so different, given that each was cut from the nearly identical cloth of empire? If the characteristics of a resilient democracy include pluralism, control over defined territory, a sense of being one nation and, for poor countries, the ability to develop—then it seems to have taken India about 30-35 years to become one, from the early 1940s to the late 1970s. Pakistan, by contrast, remains far from the democratic goal.
But from the outset in 1947, there were several factors which favoured India over Pakistan. The basis for founding Pakistan…
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