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“Active measures”: a history of Russian interference in US elections

Interconnectivity has made it easier than ever—but recent meddling has precedent

By Calder Walton  

President-Elect Donald Trump speaks during a rally at the Orlando Amphitheater at the Central Florida Fairgrounds, Friday, Dec. 16, 2016, in Orlando, Fla. ©Evan Vucci/AP/Press Association Images

When, during his election campaign, Donald Trump publicly called for Russia to hack into Hilary Clinton’s emails, he became the first presidential candidate in American history to invite a foreign intelligence operation on a rival candidate.

There are now growing reports that Russia’s intelligence services, it seems with approval of Russia’s leader…

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