Pavel Filonov was one the greatest Russian artists of the 20th century—so why isn’t he better known?by Robert Chandler / December 11, 2013 / Leave a comment
During a recent week in Florence I made about a dozen visits to an exhibition at the Palazzo Strozzi. “The Russian avant-garde, Siberia and the East” makes a case for the influence of shamanistic cult objects on Kandinsky, Goncharova and other 20th century Russian artists. The reason I went so many times, however, was simply that I wanted, again and again, to look at seven paintings by Pavel Filonov (1883-1941), whom I—and many Russians—consider the most remarkable of all the many great Russian artists of the last century.
Many of Filonov’s paintings are huge and extraordinarily detailed. Seen closely, every element of Filonov’s works takes on a life of its own. One square centimetre of canvas could, if enlarged 50 or 100 times, be an entire Paul Klee—or a Miro, or a Kandinsky. Another square centimetre is more roughly textured—like the wrong side of a piece of richly coloured embroidery. Another square centimetre may be relatively empty—not a pattern but a delicate wash of colour. Each time one steps back from observing the detail of Filonov’s paintings, the work as a whole has changed. Living Head is full of joyful colour. But if you look at the painting as a whole, what you first see are the outlines of a rather mournful face.
Filonov was born to a poor family in 1883, and both of his parents died before he was 14. In 1897 his eldest sister married a prosperous engineer and the family moved from Moscow to St Petersburg. Dismayed by their new bourgeois comfort, Filonov slept on the floor, working meanwhile as a house painter. Determined to be an artist, he failed the entrance exams for the Academy of Arts three times. On his fourth attempt, he was accepted because of his exceptional knowledge of anatomy. Soon he was thrown out—for not listening to his teachers, refusing to bow to an important princess who was a patron of the Academy and “corrupting his fellow students with his works.” He was reinstated but then left of his own free will. From 1910, together with such figures as Kazimir Malevich and Vladimir Mayakovsky, he regularly took part in projects and exhibitions linked to the avant-garde.
Filonov appears to have seen the Revolution as the realisation of a dream of world harmony. Even…