The European Union referendum delivered a startling result—but not a conclusion. Having voted to leave the EU, Britain faces more questions and uncertainty than it has for a generation and the drive to find solutions to those challenges has only just begun.
Britain’s new Prime Minster will face a dramatically changed political landscape, dominated by worries about immigration, the economy, the possibility of a second Scottish independence referendum and uncertainty over the nation’s international standing, the last of these having been dealt a series of hammer-blows by the judgments of the Chilcot report. All of these issues are examined in these pages.
As for the EU, before negotiations can begin, Jean-Claude Juncker, President of the European Commission, has said that Britain must trigger Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty, which starts the two-year countdown to departure from the EU.
The question of whether to engage Article 50 raises profound constitutional questions. If there were a Commons vote to trigger the article, Parliament would effectively have decided to throw off a host of international obligations. Should Parliament simply vote itself more power in this way? And then Scotland. Nicola Sturgeon, the First Minister, is determined to keep Scotland in the EU, meaning that Article 50 could lead to the break-up of the country.
The significance of the article is hard to overstate. There is a case for holding a UK-wide vote on whether to trigger it. Once this is done and the EU negotiations begin, Britain will have to bargain with all 27 EU member states, each with its own political interests. Any change to the EU’s trade or other agreements with a post-Brexit Britain would require the assent of every EU member state—or put another way, a deal with Britain could be vetoed by any si…