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How to achieve long-term goals? One must be both a hedgehog and a fox

John Gaddis's new study of grand strategy draws on a famous essay by Isaiah Berlin

By David Patrikarakos  

Drawing on Isaiah Berlin’s famous 1953 essay “The Hedgehog and the Fox,” John Gaddis, the Pulitzer Prize-winning historian of the Cold War, explains in this characteristically fascinating and important work, that “Hedgehogs… relate everything to a single central vision” through which “all that they say and do has significance.” Foxes, by contrast, “pursue many ends, often unrelated and even contradictory, connected, if at all, only in some de facto way.”

This idea serves as a core around which Gaddis builds his central theory in On Grand Strategy—a work that examines…

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