Two “state we’re in” analyses by a pessimistic philosopher and an optimistic scientist are best taken with a tot of scepticism
The Uses of Pessimism and the Danger of False Hope
by Roger Scruton (Atlantic, £15.99)
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves
by Matt Ridley (4th Estate, £20)
The contrast between the titles of these books is a little misleading, since they have a great deal in common. Each of them could have been read with pleasure by Margaret Thatcher, whom Scruton admired, and in whose government Matt Ridley’s uncle—Nicholas Ridley, the minister of state responsible for the Falkland Islands—played such a prominent role. Scruton’s book, as befits that of a philosopher, is more nuanced, more profound, and is in many ways more pleasing than Ridley’s, whose one-dimensional message becomes a little tiresome. But both are brimful of intelligence and learning.
For Scruton, the uses of pessimism are to counter various fallacies that underpin many utopian and visionary political philosophies. He elegantly skewers the mistakes involved in myopically concentrating on the