Developments in contemporary science, especially evolutionary biology and cosmology, have been used to support a kind of “totalizing naturalism” according to which the universe and the processes within it need no explanation beyond the categories of the natural sciences themselves.
Whether one speaks of self-organizing principles in living things or of processes of emergence, the conclusion often reached is that nature is self-sufficient. A creator is irrelevant at best, so the argument goes. Theories in contemporary cosmology have been used both to affirm and to deny the existence of a creator. Both Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow’s The Grand Design (2010) and Lawrence Krauss’s A Universe from Nothing (2012) propose that contemporary cosmology allows us to account for the coming into existence of the universe “out of nothing” without